As James Griffing tended his flock of students through the winter of 1849-1850 in Tunkhannock, the national drama continued 200 miles to the south in the District of Columbia. Finally, on January 29, 1850, the aging Henry Clay returned to the Senate after a long absence and introduced a series of resolutions that he hoped would restore order to impending chaos. Appealing to reason, the "Great Compromiser" proposed a total of eight resolutions as a general formula for settling the differences between North and South. These resolutions provided for (1) admission of California as a free state; (2) organization, without restriction on slavery, of the balance of the territory acquired from Mexico; (3) adjustment of the Texas-New Mexico boundary; (4) assumption by the U.S. of the Texas debt contracted before annexation, provided that Texas relinquished her claim to any part of Mexico; (5) noninterference with slavery in the District of Columbia; (6) prohibition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia; (7) more effective provision for the return of fugitive slaves; and (8) declared that Congress had no authority to interfere with the interstate slave trade. 
the days immediately following Henry Clay's speech, Augusta Goodrich's Aunt Mary
wrote a letter to Augusta from Hartford, Connecticut. At the time, Augusta was
teaching a Select school near her hometown in upstate New York.
My Dear Augusta,
I hasten to answer your letter, which Mr. Miller brought, as you do not speak of having received a letter from me in January & the time must seem long, if you have not yet had my last letter.
We are sorry to hear of your father's illness. I do most truly sympathize with you in your anxiety about him. I hope dear Cutie, you are enabled to commit your care to “Him who doeth all things well.” We trust that your dear father will be supported & strengthened for his duties, and if called to suffer, that he will rest upon God’s everlasting arm. His feeble state of health must be a trial to you & as such, you can go to your Heavenly Father & tell Him your cares. He will smooth the way for your dear father so that sick or well, he can rejoice in the Lord always.
Your discouragements in school are nothing strange for every teacher must find some pupils peculiarly fitted to try their instructor’s temper. What is vexatious & annoying to you should prove a salutary discipline; & if you see no means of remedying the evil, you can spread the case before your compassionate Savior, & read Hebrews 12:3, “For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be weary & faint in your minds.” The lessons you learnt here must be useful to you now. I often think how patiently you were enabled to bear with [my son] Frederic’s impatience & irritable feelings. And I hope you will have resolution to do right in your present sphere. Remember that these scholars are all of them precious souls. God is no respecter of persons and he may bless you in your efforts to preserve a calm & patient spirit at all times so that the ones who give you most trouble may become a great comfort.
Dr. [Joel] Hawes  called here last week & enquired affectionately about you. Told me to tell you that he shall always remember you with affectionate interest & thinks of you every Tuesday evening when his little class meets. About the same number attend as formerly with a few additions. He said he loved to meet those dear children in his study & they all seemed very dear to him ever after.
Miss [Emily Ann] Bird & Mr. [Henry John] van Lennep  have concluded to marry & the ladies are assisting Miss [Emily Ann] Bird in her outfit. Do you recollect Miss Flint that lives opposite here? She expects to marry a young missionary named Whiting & go to Siam this spring.
Elisa has a little daughter a month old. Mrs. Latimer (Miss Whiting) has a daughter 2 months old. Hancie [Abbey] made us a visit of two days last week. Sends her love & said something about a letter. I forget what.
Last Saturday night the little shed close by our Lecture room took fire & before it could be managed by the firemen, burned into the rear of the Lecture room & spoiled the teacher’s library, which was only insured for half its value. The room was badly smoked & is yet unfit for use. It is thought that a strong west wind would have caused the whole building to be burned – and church too – but we were mercifully dealt by & the loss is comparatively trifling.
Aunt Betsy told me yesterday to give her best love to you for she feels a deep interest in you & never shall forget your kindness when she was sick. Aunt Abby often speaks of you with much gratitude & affection. Grandma & Aunt always ask about you & send much love. Of course, at Father’s you seem like one of our family & they all love you as much as ever. Miss Sally Butler asked me, “Where is your pleasant sister that was with you so long? Has she left you? How you must miss her.” So you see, I could not forget you if I would. Everything in the house reminds me of dear Cutie, & I think of you many times in a day. Our little boys often say, “I wish Cutie would come back. I want to see her.” A little while ago, Jamie asked if we should never see Cutie again till we get to heaven?” And often, when praying for his friends, he asks a blessing upon “Cutie too.”
We received a letter from your mother last week & I shall try to write her soon & also to sister Lucy. Sister Sarah has been spending the day here with Mrs. Lester, her Plainfield friend who is in town on a visit. Your Uncle [Elizur] unites with me in much love to you. Write whenever you can. Your affectionate Aunt, -- Mary C. Goodrich
On the following day, James wrote again to Augusta from his temporary home in Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania:
It seemed a long time 'ere I received an
answer to my letter. You who are surrounded with old acquaintances, relatives
and many other kind friends and favored with every facility for making time pass
so [agreeably] might to be ready at all times to commiserate the fortune of
those who are thrown among strangers away from the friends of their youth and
whose only opportunity to enjoy their society is through the medium of the quill
and give them the advantage of one of their ever welcome messengers (a letter)
as often as possible. Believing, however, that preaching avails but little
without practice, I embrace the very first opportunity to reply to your [letter
I was right glad to receive yours not only because it was from yourself but because it brought some information from home. Shortly after I came here I wrote home and have been waiting, and waiting, and waiting, and waiting for an answer but none has come yet. And I begin to think that they did not receive the letter because Samuel is always very punctual in answering my letters. However, perhaps I do not now make sufficient allowance for the increase of his little responsibilities. I did not know where Henry was this winter. You made no mention of the school in our District and did not say whether Mary attended school this winter or not. I hope she does however.
received a letter from New Troy today informing me that [my] sister Permelia had
left there and had commenced attending the school at the Wyoming Seminary at
Kingston. This is one of the best institutions of the kind I believe in
Pennsylvania. The principal, Mr. [Reuben] Nelson,
is one of the very best of men and devotes his entire "self" to the
interest of the institution, which through his untiring zeal has attained its
present popularity. All the faculty are well qualified for their station, and
you may be assured that it furnished me no small degree of pleasure to learn
that Permelia had gone there. Kingston is about 6 miles from New Troy and on the
opposite side of the river from Wilkes-Barre. Tomorrow noon this term of my
school closes when I shall have the privilege (Providence favoring) of making
her a visit as well as [my brother-in-law Charles] Giddings's family.
I have about concluded to remain from Middletown a year from the time I left as I feel somewhat anxious to be present during the whole Senior year. What do you think of it? After all, I dislike the idea of no more seeing my class together; no more to engage in housekeeping with that best of chums, and yet I believe it will be altogether for the best that I stay out a year. If I conclude to do so, I may teach in this place until I return. My vacation at this time will be only four days. Miss Payson's health is quite poor so that she has had no school for about 3 weeks and I am not certain but it may oblige her to leave her school entirely. I hope not, however, as I have now about as many as I wish to attend to. Besides, she is an excellent teacher and the community needs her talents and influence.
I begin to like my school much better than at first, and in extending
my acquaintances find many very fine people everywhere. Have attended three
donation parties within a short time and enjoyed them quite well. As well as at
most other places where large companies of young people assemble, the time is
almost wholly spent in gibbering nonsense, exciting mirthfulness. Yet sensible
persons can be found almost everywhere notwithstanding. At two of these
donations, many of the young people went off in a room by themselves and engaged
in these foolish party plays "__________", and the like for a long
while without receiving a single word of reproof from the minister. Such conduct
I could hardly reconcile to my views of propriety.
You mentioned some objections you had heard to the Mt. Holyoke Seminary and perhaps its remarkable rigidity in enforcing discipline and thorough course of instruction might create dissatisfaction in the minds of many that attempt -- yet this argues in favor of the institution. It is the case at Middletown that many become dissatisfied, but when you ascertain the cause of this dissatisfaction, it invariably turns out that it is because they were obliged to study so hard. I know not how it is [at Mt. Holyoke Seminary] now, but I know that whilst Miss Lyon  was living, its reputation was world-wide and graduated better and more efficient scholars than any female institution in the Country -- Miss Willard's celebrated Troy Female Seminary  notwithstanding. To be sure, it has been derided by some in high life because it obliges all its inmates to engage in some kind of manual labor, which also has injured it in the eyes of a certain class. Yet the very fact that it is obliged to turn away yearly more applicants than are to be found in many female schools, the fact that so many of its graduates become missionaries, the fact that it is so thorough in its course of instruction, and that its motto is to assist those who are obliged to struggle along amidst adverse circumstances, all argue in its favor. Yet perhaps there are many things that would argue against the institution to which I am a stranger.
You spoke of the Academy at
Owego. Since the Regents of the University have designated it as a place for the
Instruction of Teachers and as a branch of the State Normal School, it [appears
that it] will be spared to make it [financially because of] public patronage.
you are acquainted with Charles R. Coburn, known for zeal and
ambition in anything which he undertakes, he has but few equals. At present,
their accommodations are somewhat limited and in the facilities for imparting
instruction are somewhat deficient. Yet I know that Mr. Coburn is a very
efficient instructor. What Mr. [William] Smyth is, I know not, only by
I notice that they have employed Miss N[ancy] D[arling] Thurston  to take charge of the department of young ladies which I suppose will do as well as she can. If they could only purchase an additional lot and build a large boarding house in connection with the school, it might be made an institution that would call them in far and near, and deservingly merit an extensive patronage. I should think you would enjoy yourself very well there as you would be so near home and right among old acquaintances and make it very profitable even if you could not find so much time for study as away. After all, it almost entirely depends upon one's self. With the very best of opportunities, many waste their precious hours and grow up worthless; whilst many surrounded with destitution have placed a correct value upon their time and talents and withal looked forward to their future accountability, have risen to places of influence and trust and are considered as precious gems wherever they are known.
After I visit with Sister Permelia, I shall ascertain her conclusions concerning the place she will attend school. Perhaps she will think best to remain where she is. I do wish you would write her at Kingston, Luzerne County. Remember me to my friend R. with thanks for her communication. Tell her it shall be remembered. I hope when I return from Troy to find an answer to this in the [Post] Office where I will write you both, giving incidents by the way with a history of any adventures &c &c &c. Now don't delay so long again but please write soon after the reception of this giving all the news, and in the meantime believe me your -- James.
Friday noon. My school closed today under quite flattering circumstances,
and the prospects are very favorable for next term. If my patrons are nearly
prompt to pay as patronize, I will be glad that I came to Tunkhannock. We have
quite good sleighing here, yet quite mild weather. Miss Payson thinks of
stopping her school for three months on account of her health. When does your
school close? Shall you return to
Owego immediately? If you attend school at [the Owego Academy], will your cousin
also? Do you think Permelia had better also? I should be very glad to have [my
sister] Mary [attend the Owego Academy] if Mother could spare her. She never has
been away from home but little and is so very bashful she hardly dares speak to
anybody. If my life and health is spared, she must have an education.
days before the U.S. Senate was convened to discuss Henry Clay's compromise
resolutions, George Stillman wrote his chum James Griffing a letter. Alone in his dormitory room at Middletown, George humorously chided his
long lost classmate for not writing him from Tunkhannock.
Amazement seizes me! "By reference to the appropriate
column, it will be seen that the second term of Mr. Griffing's Select School
"(well, well)" is to commence "(very likely)" on the 7th day
of February "(I should think so)." The term that has just closed has
given ample evidence "(no doubt of it)" of Mr. G's "(who is
he!)" ability "(Exactly: Prof. Johnson)" and qualifications
"(Yes, yes)" as a teacher "(probably)" and that he is every
way worthy "(Umph, umph)" of the confidence "(just as might be
expected)" and support "(exactly)" of community
"(Amen)." We say to one and all, Support our Schools
"(Amen)." They are the very strength of the country "(We suppose
they are)." There are a great many idle boys in this town "(is it
possible?)" and its vicinity "(As a consequence)." We have just
taken from the [Post] Office a paper containing a Notice something like the
Tunk' and Nock
We would most respectfully enquire who this
Mr. Griffing is. We did once know a young man whose [surname] was Griffing and
whom they did christian James Sayre we think, but we had supposed him dead or
transported and so went in mourning for him, for we have written to him and
re-written but have received no answer so that we knew not where this young man
was or where he had met it might be his melancholy fate.
But is this Principal of Tunk and nock School
the same with whom we have often communed and whom we have seen once and again
face to face! Is the young man alive and doth he yet live? Is it well with him?
Under the melancholy and overwhelming conviction that he was no more, we were
about to confiscate his property here, turn it into the State so that it might
benefit someone. We did once think of advertising this young man whom we did
once know, nay we were sore perplexed and cast into great straits and
difficulties as we pondered the question so deeply interesting to us, 'When
shall we find him, or shall we find out where he is?'
And now if this paper reaches him, i.e. the
man whom we once knew, if he is alive, if he careth for us, if we have really
found out whom he is (which we shall not know unless he writes), then we may
trouble him with another and different communication from this. We did write him
a letter whenever we made divers confessions, we believe, and granted various
pardons which he did crave at our hands. But he hath made answer to none of the
things whereof we did write. We told him much that did concern college matters,
concerning which he hath written nothing. He hath held his peace. Wherefore if
he is yet alive, we do hope that he will clear away this mist of doubt and
uncertainty which doth hang about us by speedily letting us know it. We remain,
-- his afflicted Chum
P.S. We have had several applications from
respectable young men, from young men of standing in community, to become our
chums; but we could not endure the thought. While we are alone, we yet have
hope. But if we were to take in one whom we knew not (so to speak) this hope
concerning our old Chum would be taken away. Therefore, we have stoutly refused
all applicants and they have gone away sorrowing. Thus endeth the writing of the
"Post Scriptum" (You are a classical scholar) composed & penned by
the author of this entire epistola (do you understand that?). Farewell!
Three weeks into his second term of Select school at Tunkhannock, James wrote to Augusta Goodrich again:
Kind Friend Augusta,
After so long a time your letter has at length
reached town freighted with its usual quantum of news, reading matter, &c
&c. We were upon the point of anathematizing some of "Uncle Sam's"
agents for their great delay in forwarding a communication which we supposed
must be in the [Post] Office some two weeks ago but were saved from the trouble
by its final arrival. And we find ourselves to answer direct or your
quarters may be changed before it reaches you. We regretted much to hear of the
continued bad health of your dear Father and are fearful that as his
constitution has not as yet been able to surmount the disease, it must 'ere long
sink beneath its ceaseless preyings. We will ever truly hope and pray for the
quarters may be changed before it reaches you. We regretted much to hear of the continued bad health of your dear Father and are fearful that as his constitution has not as yet been able to surmount the disease, it must 'ere long sink beneath its ceaseless preyings. We will ever truly hope and pray for the best.
Our visit below was indeed pleasant after
being confined in the school room closely three months in succession. A
pedestrian excursion of that kind was just what we needed. Every impulse of our
nature seemed to be loudly demanding it. The distance to be traveled was about
22 miles. Nothing of especial interest occurred along the way. We were obliged
on our way to cross a chain of the Allegheny mountains. Whilst toiling up the
rugged cliffs and along the narrow defiles, who should disturb our loneliness
but a Methodist domini soliciting our company for a ride. Neither would our
allusion to the high hills and poor sleighing cause him to pass on without
sharing a portion of his old fashioned sleigh as well as the pleasure of his
company. He wished to know at once if my name was not Griffing. This caused me
to open my eyes and renew the scanning of the gentleman's form as well as
scrutinize his Physiognomy more closely when I recognized my old friend Rev.
Mr. Smith , whose acquaintance I had formed a number of years previous in Barton
[New York]. Much as I was enjoying
my trip alone, it afforded no little pleasure to be borne along a few miles in
this way, when he was obliged to leave the river road and go among his
"flock" over among the hills. Precious old man thought I, when obliged
to leave. His truly benevolent heart will call down upon his head innumerable
blessings even in this life, and thus prove a continual resource of happiness if
there should prove to be a hereafter. But connect with this the Christian's idea
of the future and is not the possession of such a heart and disposition greatly
to be envied?
We arrived at our point of destination much
sooner than we anticipated. Was right glad to feel that we were among brothers
and sisters. [My sister] Permelia had heard of our coming and had come up from
her school to spend the Sabbath. [My] sister [Clarissa] Giddings health was fast
improving. She was able to walk out to her meals.
I think I mentioned in my last [letter] that she buried an infant child
some two weeks before and had been quite feeble since. [My] Brother [in-law]
[Rev. Charles Woodbury] Giddings has been troubled much of late of sore throat and a kind of
depression about the lungs so that he did not know at one time but that he
should be obliged to stop preaching, but thinks he is now slowly regaining.
Formed some few acquaintances
there [in New Troy, Pennsylvania]. Found the people very frank and kind, and
many of them very wealthy (as is every individual who owns a good farm in the
Wyoming valley) yet from their external appearance, you would think them surely
pinched with poverty. How different, thought I, is this from Yankeedom and how
very much will people be governed by circumstances, and how prone people are to
run into extremes. Whilst the New Englander, even to the most menial operative,
will spend all his weekly earnings and put it upon his back and appear
externally as if he might be worth his thousands and most generally holds a
close fist when the hand of charity presents itself. Here the similar
circumstanced individuals will appear almost reckless as it respects his
external appearance, but seems to rejoice in the privilege of contributing
something to alleviate the cries of the destitute and wretched. At a missionary
meeting among the members of Br. [Charles] Giddings' congregation, some two
hundred and fifty dollars were raised a few weeks ago without any very especial
effort and I have my doubts whether even in the cities of Hartford and
Middletown at a similar meeting, one half of that would be raised setting aside
a hundred villages there the size of New Troy's. However, I think as far as
personal appearances is concerned, it is carried to extremes in both places.
Whilst the New Englander is inclined to be extravagant and expend much money for
needless apparel, the hardy sons of the "Keystone" State at times
excite ones disgust by their great want of tidiness and decency. Yet I am
confident that a more generous hearted class of people who will entertain you
with such open hospitality and kindness are no where to be found in New England.
I have often thought that they were nearly as much so as your Aunt Mary [in
Hartford] who you know in that respect is a perfect exception to almost all
On Monday morning, I carried sister
down to her school, attended morning prayers, and formed the acquaintance of a
few of the students. Went about the buildings somewhat and left with a very
favorable impression as it respects discipline, facilities for instruction,
&c &c. Had a very pleasant visit with Br. [William] Reddy during the
forenoon. I believe him to be one of the very best men whose acquaintance I ever
formed. I don't know as I ever visited with him without leaving a wiser and
better individual. Took dinner with sister [Permelia]. She is keeping
"Maiden's Hall" but that did not seem in the least to interfere with
her serving me up a dish after the most approved method of cookery.
Reached this place on Tuesday evening after an
absence of four days. Had much difficulty in crossing the [Susquehanna] river as
it was very high and the ice was running at a great rate. We were crowded along
down near half a mile before [our ferry] gained the opposite shore.
Commenced my school under very favorable
auspices this time as it is much larger this term than last. Have been obliged
to hire an assistant, yet we are obliged to labor under many inconveniences on
account of the want of room. I believe I mentioned that Miss Payson was obliged
to stop teaching on account of her health and go home. She writes that a change
of employment, gentle exercise, and the constant benefit of good fresh air have
done much towards invigorating her overtaxed energies and she thinks she will be
able to return to her employment about the first of April.
Sabbath morning [March 3, 1850]. Although I do
not make it a practice to choose this day in which I may meet the demands of my
correspondents, yet I was just a thinking that if careful in the selection of
our topics of conversation, there could certainly be no more harm in conversing
through the pen than with the tongue on this day. I believe the Sabbath to have
been given us especially for our spiritual profit and that that individual comes
very far short of answering the designs of his Maker who neglects to dedicate it
entirely to this great and all important purpose. I think of late I have never
fully than ever felt the purport of the Apostles meaning where he says, "Be
always abounding in the work of the Lord. Knowing that the great destroyer of
earth's happiness never ceaseth in his work of destruction and that a perishing
world will never pause in its cry for deliverance." Therefore, as a
professed follower of Christ, I am to know no period when I shall be permitted
to pause in my peculiar vocation. The termination of one duty must prove only a
signal for the commencement of another. And if I can possibly expect the
Christian's reward, it becomes me to see that my whole life is one continuous
act of obedience. I should feel much more happy, I think, this morning could I
look back upon my past life as having been characterized by the most strict
obedience and fidelity to the best of causes. But like many others, my life has
been, as it were, almost a blank and I have been contented to feed upon husks in
a land of plenty. Yet all the past is registered on high to meet me in a coming
Augusta, would it be asking too much to
obtain an expression of your views upon this subject? And also your purposes in
relation to it? Whether it is entitled to any claim upon your time and talents
and influence. Whether it would accord with your feelings to labor in some
sphere however humble it may be for its promotion. Whether in fact the least
substantial happiness is to be found in any, or all, of the pleasures of
For my own part, there appears to be such a
beauty and excellency connected with this cause that I have just reason to
reprove myself for my backwardness in ever standing forth as its faithful
advocate. And in my opinion, [there is] no brighter, purer, or more precious
[glory on] this sin smitten earth than [accrues to] those who have entirely
consecrated themselves to its advancement. I believe that it was for this very
object we were created and so long kept in being. And every hour we neglect to
do it, we are only strengthening the chains by which the great thieve of souls
is dragging us to his own abode.
Yet why need I desire this of you? Can you
experimentally say with one of old, "I know that my redeemer liveth and
that because he liveth, I shall live also." I know not whether your mind
has ever been much exercised upon this all important subject and, indeed, I know
not but in some period of the past you have heard those blessed words of your
Redeemer, "Thy sins, which are many, are all forgiven thee. Go in
Augusta, you must use no reserve. For if
the subject is of any importance and if it is of such importance, it seems to me
that it is all important that we make it a theme of conversation. For one, I
desire to see you in your possession if it is not already the "pearl of
great price" for without it, I am confident that we are unfit to live, much
less prepared for death. I desire it for your own sake. I desire it for the
influence you are daily exerting upon others. I desire it for the sake of the
church and for the claims your Redeemer has upon you. I desire it for your
happiness in this life. And most of all, I desire it so that if anything should
happen to deter the consummation of our wishes and prevent the enjoyment of each
others society in this life, it might be ours to meet in that world of happiness
where disappointment never enters but where, in the presence of those whom our
Savior and ourselves loved upon the earth, we may forever enjoy uninterrupted
As you suggested, I should like very much if
circumstances would allow if I could return to Middletown and graduate with my
class, but think that it would be decidedly to my advantage to remain out a
year. Do you think it probable that you may go down east again very soon? Dr.
[Horace] Bushnell's case, I notice, is making a great stir "down east."
 I have received no news from home of late. Please write soon and let me
know where I had better direct my next [letter]. Please write a good long letter
and believe me ever yours, -- James
 Richard B. Morris, The Encyclopedia of American History, p. 210.
 Dr. Joel Hawes was a prominent Congregationalist minister who was also a noted author. He was particularly famous for his published lectures intended to inspire young men and women.
 Henry John van Lennep, b 1815 in Turkey, (son of Richard van Lennep and d'Adéle Marie of Heidenstam); Prepared Mt. Pleasant Institute, Amherst and Hartford (Conn.) Grammar School. Andover T. S., 1837-38; studied with Dr. Joel Hawes, Hartford, Conn., 1838-39; ordained Aug. 27, 1839; Missionary of A. B. C. F. M., 1840-69; Smyrna, Turkey, 1840-44; Constantinople, 1844-54; Tocat, 1854-56; Smyrna, 1863-69; Professor of natural Science, Greek and modern languages Ingham U., Le Roy, N. Y., 3 yrs. Pub. Oriental Album; Travels in Little-known Parts of Asia Minor; Ten Days among Greek Brigands, and other works; ed. several works in Armenian. Died in Great Barrington, Jan. 11, 1889. He was married first to Emma L. Bliss; married second to Mary E. Hawes, daughter of Dr. Joel Hawes, and third to Emily Ann Bird, the 27-year old daughter of Isaac Bird, who was a Congregationalist minister and former missionary to Syria where his children were born.
 Miss Mary Lyon. Inspired by
Hannah More's writings, Joseph Emerson (a relative of Ralph Waldo Emerson)
concluded that women were "susceptible of learning and, after some
years as a tutor at Harvard and in the pulpit, tested the notion in his
girls' school at Bayfield, Massachusetts. Among the pupils on whom it worked stimulatingly well, were Zilpah
Polly Grant of Norfolk, Connecticut, who installed his extended curriculum
in her seminary at Ipswich, Massachusetts, and Mary Lyon, her
assistant and fellow pupil under Emerson, who expanded what was done at
Ipswich into the germ of the first American women's college. Her Mount Holyoke Seminary at South Hadley, Massachusetts, followed
the curriculum of the then-newish Amherst College with lady teachers
supplemented by occasional men lecturers from Amherst and Williams; caused
further comment by making the girls work at the housekeeping to reduce
expenses, for Miss Lyon felt strongly that these new intellectual privileges
should be available to daughters of families of modest means; and
eventually, in the academy-into-college evolution, [the Seminary] became
Mount Holyoke College." J.
C. Furnas, The Americans, p. 741.
 Mrs. Emma Willard of Berlin, Connecticut. Mrs. Willard established the first college for women to attract significant attention as an institution that offered "the same higher academic culture that colleges afforded young men." She was the principal of the Female Academy of Middlebury, Vermont, until she married. Later, "after some experiment and much stubborn agitation, she managed to found in 1821 at Troy, New York, a girls' school soon famous for taking its pupils through the subjects, such as philosophy and mathematics, then thought to supply intellectual muscle." J. C. Furnas, The Americans, p. 741.
 Prior to 1850, the Owego Academy was privately run. In 1851, a wing was added to the rear of the Academy to accommodate the teacher's institution, which was paid for with public funds.
 Mr. William Smyth, the Principal of the Owego Academy in 1850. He would later become editor of the Owego Advertiser -- a Whig paper.
 Nancy Darling Thurston, born 24 March 1814, was the daughter of David Thurston and Fanny Darling. Her younger brother, John Metcalf Thurston murdered the husband of her younger sister, Mary Almeda Thurston in the fall of 1851. See James Griffing's letter to Augusta Goodrich dated October 24, 1851.
Probably Rev. Erastus Smith (1809-1885) who was serving at Springville, PA at the time of
this letter. "His pastoral record is as follows: 1832, Bethany and
Honesdale; 1833, Pittston; 1834, Canaan; 1835, Bridgewater; 1836, Nichols;
1837-38, Vestal; 1839-40, Orwell; 1841-42, Orwell; 1841-42, Brooklyn; 1843,
Nichols; 1844-45, Barton; 1846-47, Northmoreland; 1848, Pittston; 1849, sy., and
supply at Northmoreland; 1850-51, Springville; 1852-53, Beach Pond; 1854-55,
Waymart; 1856-57, Newport; 1858-84, superannuated." After his
superannuation he moved to Illinois, where he did considerable work as supply
within the bounds of Rock River Conference. He labored about fifteen years as
Agent for the American Bible Society. Source: History of the Wyoming
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church by A. F. Chaffee.